NOTES: Taxonomy accompanied by suggestion for 6 incident-related attributes/tags—general incident description (9 values), method of advertising (6 values), purchase setting (5 values), method of money transfer (10 values), dollar loss categories, and duration; 7 values of a victim descriptor tag (e.g., veteran victim; victim reported fraud to authorities); and 5 values of a perpetrator descriptor tag. Other acts causing or threatening injury or harm, Parental abduction; Abduction by a family member; Abduction by a legal guardian; Abduction by another person, 2.3.7. In the case of fraud (7.1), the ICCS invokes a very general definition (“obtaining money or other benefit, or evading a liability through deceit or dishonest conduct”), and differentiates only between “financial fraud” and “other acts of fraud” at the second level of classification. Unlawful possession or use of weapons and explosives, Unlawful possession or use of firearms; Unlawful possession or use of other weapons or explosives; Unlawful possession or use of chemical, biological, or radioactive materials; Other acts related to possession or use of weapons and explosives, 9.1.2. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Unlawful interference with a computer system; Unlawful interference with computer data, 5.3.3. Full development of category 2, fraud against an organization, was deemed “beyond the scope” of initial activity. The International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) provides a comprehensive framework for producing statistics on crime and criminal justice. Also, it is a formidable tool to improve quality of data on crime and criminal justice at national level and to support national efforts to monitor SDG targets in the areas of public security and safety, trafficking, corruption, and access to justice. Unlawful possession or use of controlled drugs for personal consumption, 6.2. Trafficking of weapons and explosives, Trafficking of firearms; Trafficking of other weapons or explosives; Trafficking of chemical, biological or radioactive materials; Other acts related to trafficking of weapons and explosives, 9.1.3. That said, California is among the states whose criminal codes distinguish between assault (“an unlawful attempt, coupled with a present ability, to commit a violent injury on the person of another”) and battery (“any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another”)—with battery, and the actual explicit use of force, being the more severe offense (California Penal Code §§ 240 and 245, respectively). In some cases, we collapse fourth-level breaks suggested by the UNODC; in others, we “promote” some lower-level categories up by one or two levels, where it seemed natural to do so. To further clarify: Box 5.1 Financial Fraud Resource Center Suggested Taxonomy of Criminal Fraud, Equity investment fraud — 7 subcategories by type of equity (e.g., Real Estate Investment Trust, oil and gas exploration), Debt investment fraud — 4 subcategories by type of investment (e.g., promissory note), 1.1.3 Other investment opportunities fraud, 1.2.1 Worthless or nonexistent products (intentionally entered agreement), Worthless products — 9 subcategories by product type (e.g., weight loss products, fake gemstones), Paid never received — Subcategories for online marketplace fraud and other, Other worthless/nonexistent products, 1.2.2 Worthless, unnecessary, or nonexistent services (intentionally entered agreement), Immigration services/Notario fraud, Debt relief scam — 5 subcategories (e.g., student debt relief, mortgage relief), Fake credit lines and loans — Subcategories for fake loans, fake credit lines/credit cards, and other, Phishing websites/emails/calls — Subcategories for tech support scam, spoofing websites, and other, Unnecessary or overpriced repairs, or repairs never performed — Subcategories for auto repair, home repair, and other, 1.2.3 Unauthorized billing for products or services, Unauthorized billing, Internet services — Subcategories for online Yellow Pages and other, Unauthorized billing, phone services — Subcategories for cramming, slamming, and other, Unauthorized billing, credit monitoring services, 1.2.4 Other consumer products and services fraud, Vending machines/ATM leasing scam, 1.5 Phantom debt collection fraud (continued), Bogus natural disaster-related charity, Bogus church/religious group charity, False identity as natural disaster or national tragedy survivor, 1.7 Relationship and trust fraud (wherein expected outcome is fostering a relationship), 2.1 Fraud against government agencies, programs, regulations, and society, 2.1.1 Government programs (includes welfare fraud; disability fraud; Medicare/Medicaid fraud), 2.1.2 Government regulations (includes immigration fraud; voting fraud; tax fraud; stamp fraud), 2.1.3 Other (includes insider trading; environmental fraud), 2.2 Fraud against nongovernmental businesses or organizations, 2.2.1 Occupational fraud (committed by internal perpetrator) (includes corruption; asset misappropriation; financial statement fraud), 2.2.2 Fraud committed by external perpetrator (includes insurance fraud; bank fraud; fraudulent suppliers). Areas where we fundamentally disagree with the ICCS are very rare, and so instances where we differ from the ICCS are generally motivated by other factors. In short, this is a uniquely opportune time to state a few select conclusions that derive directly from this report’s focus on development of a crime classification and from what we learned from outreach to the broader crime statistics constituencies. First, as described in Section 1.2, we take the criminal offense as the basic unit for classification purposes. Drawing a correspondence between this suggested classification and current (or as-yet nonexistent) data collections awaits our second report. However, we retain it as a subtype of fraud (as 7.1.2 in our hierarchy) for several reasons. assault usually is accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. This principle is that (4) the suggested classification should be designed in order to enable and promote comparisons between jurisdictions, between periods of time, and across state and national boundaries. It is not to suggest anything hard-set about the ordering of offenses within the classification, such as their severity or importance. Ready to take your reading offline? Its primary unit of classification is the act or event that constitutes a criminal offence and the description of the criminal acts is based on behaviours and not on legal provisions. Our concern is that NIBRS’s core development work and structuring took place in the late 1980s, and it is not clear that its design has kept pace with changes in reporting practices, computing technology, and emerging crime types. Other acts related to the activities of a terrorist group, 10.1. Acts of forgery/counterfeiting documents, 7.2.4. For at least baseline concordance with the actions for which law enforcement officers can make arrests and that the justice system can pursue charges, it would be useful for the main thrust of the classification to resemble a list of known, identifiable offenses. Central to achieving that aim is relaxing strict adherence to the precise wording of state criminal or penal codes in favor of more generalizable, behavior-based definitions. A crime is defined as any act that is contrary to legal code or laws. To bridge over remaining differences, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) developed a framework for the definition and classification of unlawful killings, both in conflict and non-conflict situations, the International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS). 74/247, International cooperation and information exchange, The Monitoring Illicit Arms Flows Initiative, Trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants, Manual for criminal justice practitioners and its annexes, Global Programme against Money Laundering, Conference of the Parties to Organized Crime Convention, Mandate of the Terrorism Prevention Branch, Organization of the Terrorism Prevention Branch, Strengthening international cooperation in criminal matters, Global Programme for Combating Wildlife and Forest Crime, International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime, Blue Heart Campaign against human trafficking, 20th anniversary of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC20), Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Countering transnational organized crime and illicit trafficking/drug trafficking, Prevention, treatment and reintegration, and alternative development. Acts that trespass against the person, 2.12.2. Acts against public order sexual standards, 8.2.3. Below, we summarize a set of design principles and objectives (Section 5.1) before outlining our suggested classification in Section 5.2 and the way it differs from current classifications in Section 5.2.3. Some changes that we make to the ICCS are essentially cosmetic in nature, Americanizing spellings and removing from the list of exclusions in the long-form presentation some specific offenses that seem clearly to be features of European law rather than U.S. standards. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) 173 Number of visitors. Its primary unit of classification is the act or event that constitutes a criminal offence and the description of the criminal acts is based on behaviours and not on legal provisions. The International Classification of Crime for Statistical Purposes (ICCS) provides a comprehensive framework for producing statistics on crime and criminal justice. Unlawful trafficking or distribution of controlled drugs, 6.3.1. Other sexual exploitation of children, 3.6. (The comparable total for the ICCS is 165 third-level categories.) But, even with that, we thought it best to aim somewhat more broadly in this initial classification: only a distinction between finance fraud against persons and finance fraud against the state/government. Flexibility in building out a classification comes from negotiating what kinds of phenomena are best handled as specific, defined offenses in the classification table or left as more general offenses (but analyzed with reference to associated attribute values). Other acts against the natural environment or against animals, 11.7. Our suggested classification of crime is premised upon 11 first-level categories, which provide a general structure to the classification: These are essentially identical to the 11 first-level offenses defined in the ICCS, save for the substantive difference that we reverse the order of the elements in the label for category 4. Through repeated use of the word “unlawful” in the definitions and, less frequently, the category titles, we are generally deferential to the precise definitions that might apply in a particular state. The 30-plus-years (and counting) history of NIBRS falling short of participation expectations (and, with them, the system’s analytic potential) is testament to that difficulty, as is the failure to move the pure attribute-based classification of the mid-1970s (SEARCH) from prototype to limited production. The code lists used in information systems throughout the process this suggested classification and current or... 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